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Last NameFer    
Given NameNicolas    
alt. NamesN. d. F. ; N. de Fer / N. Defer ;    
Marriage    
Childrenthree daughters who married the paper merchant Guillaume Danet and the copper engr. Jacques-François Besnard (Bénard)    
Year born1646 in Paris    
Year died1720    
Place of deathParis    
Father's occupationParisian printer and map publ. Antoine de Fer (1xxx-1673)    
Relativesmother Geneviève, who took over the map making company in 1673, passed on to Nicolas in 1687 because of old age; son in law Denis Bénard (1710-?)    
Educationapprentice of copper engr. Louis Spirinx in Paris since age 12; in 1673 successor of his father as head of publ. co.    
Country of ActivityFrance    
Worked forLes Côtes de France (1690) ; La France Triomphante Sous le Règne de Louis le Grand (1693) ; Atlas Royal (1695 & 1699-1702) ; Petit et Nouveau Atlas (1697) ; Atlas Curieux (Paris 1700 & exp. ed. -1717) ; Atlas ou recueil de cartes géographiques (1709) ; La Sphère Royale ; astronomer Philippe de La Hire: planispher ; map "Japan inset in a map of the Philippines" (The Hague 1691 / Paris 1703) ;    
PatronageFrench court; since 1691 official French geographer of Louis, Dauphin of France; since 1702 Herzog von Anjou; Spanish King, French King Louis le Grand    
Collaboratorscopper engraver -> Claude-Auguste Berey: http://www.europeana.eu/portal/record/9200103/BibliographicResource_3000051638943.html?start=2&query=who%3A%28Nicolas+de+Berey%29&startPage=1&rows=24 ;    
Techniquesarchitectural, geographical, cartographical, topographical, and technical copper engraving ; cartographical map-making    
Sample(s)http://services.banq.qc.ca/sdx/cep/query_notice.xsp?f=auteur_nav&v=fer%2C_nicolas_de%2C_1646-1720%23%23%23Fer%2C+Nicolas+de%2C+1646-1720&sortfield=tit    
Archival sourceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_de_Fer and further links there    
Published sourcesSee www.garwood-voigt.com/catalogues/H19970SpheresDeFercol.jpg ; http://www.lib.umich.edu/divine-sky-artistry-astronomical-maps/celestial_work.html ; Grees 2002: 31 ; Walter 1994: plate 64 ;    
otherCartographer N. de Fer's atelier was situated at Quai de L'Horloge in Paris; see also http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_de_Fer?uselang=de.    
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