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Last NameAudubon    
Given NameJohn James Laforest // Jean Jacques (in French countries)    
alt. NamesJ.-J. F. A. ; Jean-Jacques Fougère Audubon / La Forest Audubon ;     
Marriageteacher Lucy Bakewell (17xx-18xx) in 1808    
Children4: ->John Woodhouse (1812-18xx), Lucy (1815-1817), Rose (1819-1820)    
Year born1785 in Les Caves, Saint-Domingue (later Haiti)    
Year died1851    
Place of deathManhattan, New York    
Father's occupationowner of a sugar plantation & naval officer Lieutenant Jean Audubon & French chambermaid, Jeanne Rabin    
Relativesmother: Jeanne Rabine; gradson ->Victor Gifford (1847-1915); other relatives are mapped in a familiy tree at www.audubonparkny.com/audubonfamily.html    
Educationmilitary school; oil painting from John Steen, Jacob Stein, Thomas Sully; landscapes from George Lehmann & Thomas Cole    
Country of ActivityUnited States of America    
Worked forAudubon: Birds of America (1827-38) ; J. A. & John Bachman: Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America (1845-8) ; P. J. Selby ; naturalist Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, for whom J.J.F.A. drew ten fictional fish under the guise of offering him new and exciting specimen (in revenge since Rafinesque had destroyed J.J.F.A.'s violin);     
Patronage    
Collaborators->Robert Havell & son ; ->W. H. Lizars ; William MacGillivray ; John Bachman ; Charles-Marie D'Orbigny ;     
Techniquesornithological aquatint, painting, and water-coloring ; graphite    
Sample(s)www.restoredprints.com/AUD005.htm ; www.aradergalleries.com/works.php?id=25&wks=53    
Archival sourceswww.lib.udel.edu/ud/spec/exhibits/animals/american.htm ; www.rwnaf.org/collections/artist?artist=463 ; www.oiseaux.net/photos/james.audubon/ ; en.wiki    
Published sourcesHerrick: Audubon 1917 ; Dict. Am. Biogr. ; Skipwith 1979: 34-47 ; A. Blum: Picturing Nature 1993 ; Dance 1989 ; Jackson 1989 ; V. Chansigaud: Hist. de l'Ornith. 2007: 163-6; 2009:116 ; S. Edwards: J.J.Audubon. Early Drawings, Cambridge, MA 2008 ; Mengel 1980: 42-4, 51f. ; R.M. Mengel: On the name of the Northern Bald Eagle and the identity of Audubon's gigantic Bird of Washington, The Wilson Bulletin 65,3 (1953): 145-151; D.F. Markle: Audubon's hoax: Ohio river fishes by Rafinesque, Archives of Natural History 24,3 (1997): 439-447; S. Maruna: Substantiating Audobon's Washington eagle, The Ohio Cardinal 29,3 (2006): 140-150; Derek G. Ross: The role of ethics, culture, and artistry in scient. illustr., Technical Communication Quarterly 2017, pp.13-14;     
otherborn in Haiti, J.J.A. was brought to France at age 3, re-named Jean Jacques Fougere Audubon; in 1803, sent to Pennsylvania with falsified passport, renamed J. J. L. A.    
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